iSyllabus Advanced

The Advance course consists of specialized courses well defined aims.

Firstly, to prepare students to make the classical religious sciences relevant to the modern age, looking at current thinking in the Philosophy of religion and the place of religion in society and how this helps focus relevant religious training for Muslims. With this in mind, the course will look at current trends in Muslim apologetics; Critical thinking; Applied ethics in the areas of medical practice, economics, civic society and family and modern trends in fiqh such as Minority fiqh.

Secondly, to complete a firm foundation in the Islamic sciences. With this in mind, students cover textual tafsir and hadith studies in the areas of family and commercial law; Advanced Usul and hadith studies; Inheritance; Heresiology and Sects; Classical Logic and Epistemology, and the philosophy of the Islamic legal code (Maqasid al-Shariah).

​SHAYKH AMER JAMIL

iSyllabus Project Director

The Modules - Year One

1 & 2. Quranic Hermeneutical Axioms

A primer on maxims used in classical and contemporary tafsir

Muslims have for a long time now fallen short of a meaningful and principled engagement with their primary religious scripture: The Quran. There are many reasons for this malaise, of which one is a lack of a systematic method for engaging with the universal themes and leitmotivs of the Quranic narrative.

One unfairly overlooked field of Quranic studies is that of ‘al-Qawa’id al-Tafsir’. These are general maxims and rules through which one can extrapolate meanings from the Quranic text and use in situations where textual conflict appears in the religious sources. They allow a student to explore the various meanings contained within the Quran, giving preference to one meaning over another where various conflicting explanations appear in tafsir sources. Last, they provide a blueprint for a holistic and universalist reading of the text that asserts the relevance of the Quran for all times. These two modules together cover topics such as:

  • The ten basic introductory principles of Quranic maxims
  • General maxims used in Quranic commentary
  • Quranic maxims related to language
  • Quranic maxims related to individual words and phrases (Kulliyat fi al-alfadh)
  • Maxims related to Quranic stylistics (Kulliyat fi al-Uslub)
  • Adjudicating Quranic maxims (Qawa’id al-Tarjih)
  • And other topics related to contextual tafsir
 

3 & 4 The Word of God – Tafsir of Selected Suras

Aims & Objectives: Through a detailed study of the commentary and selected sections of the Quranic textthis module will provide students with an insight into the divine nature of the Quranic message and the themes that make up the Quranic text. We introduce students to the special form and style of the Quranic text through a study of classical and modern works of tafsir, and through the methodology used by the most famous authorities of tafsir.

Building on the courses delivered in ‘Quranic Hermeneutical Axioms’we give special attention to developing students’ ability to make use of such maxims to form an understanding of the universal themes of the Quran and the thematic unity of individual chapters. The module also looks at the relationship between translation and Quranic exegesis and the degree to which translation may act as a vehicle to convey certain understandings of a section of the Quran over others (tarjih).

5. Comparative Fiqh & Hadith Studies (Family Law)

Aims & Objectives: This module covers comparative fiqh according to the four schools of law. It looks at how the Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali, and Hanafi schools utilise the prophetic sunnah to arrive at rulings of fiqh. Through a selection of pivotal hadith related to the fiqh of Family Law, this module allows students to understand the role of hadith literature in the science of fiqh, and how the same hadith sources sometimes lead to different legal rulings.

Topics covered:

  • The preliminaries to nikah
  • Hadith on choosing one’s prospective spouse
  • The ruling of the sermon for nikah
  • Publicising the marriage
  • Competing suitors for marriage
  • Issues related to the dowry
  • Contested forms of nikah [1]: temporary marriage (al-Mut’ah)
  • Fornication and effects on compatibility
  • The impermissibility of al-Muhalil marriage
  • The impermissibility of a permanently divorced woman to marry her previous husband until she consumes the marriage with new husband
  • The effect of a change in religion on nikah and compatibility when a wife embraces Islam

6. Comparative Fiqh & Hadith Studies (Family Law)

Aims & Objectives: This module will cover comparative fiqh according to the four schools of law. We will look at how the Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali and Hanafi schools utilise the prophetic sunnah to arrive at rulings of fiqh. Through a selection of pivotal hadith related to the fiqh of Family Law, this module will allow student to understand the role of hadith literature in the science of fiqh, and how the same hadith sources sometimes lead to different legal rulings.

Topics covered:

  • Contraception and the avoidance of pregnancy
  • Divorce at the behest of the wife: Khul’
  • The rulings for Talaq [1]
  • Talaq – The most hated of permitted acts
  • Method of Talaq – Talaq al- Sunnah and Bidah
  • On garnering witnesses for revoking a divorce pronouncement

7. Hadith Terminology

Aims & Objectives: Through this module, students will cover the key concepts and terms used by scholars in their discussions of hadith text and isnad. In particular, the content serves as a revision and consolidation for the themes covered in the textual hadith modules in the iSyllabus courses.

Students will review the major theme of Mustalah al- Hadith: the hidden defects and its impact on the gradation of a hadith as weak or otherwise. We will look at conflicting hadith in the chapter on conflict in hadith—Mukhtalif al-Hadith. There will also be a study of variant versions of the same hadith, in particular where there is extra textual information provided in one of the variant texts by an upright narrator (Ziyadah al-Thiqah). We will review hadith classification and revisit; Sahih, Hassan, and Daif hadith; Marfu’ – Mu’allaq; and Fard, Mutawatir, and Ahad. The module will conclude with a look at confirmation and follow-up narrations.

8. Religion, Religious Pluralism, and the Concept of God

This first module of four on the Philosophy of Religion will explore three areas—the concept of religion, religious exclusivism, and the idea of God—in a preliminary investigation central to understanding the zeitgeist of religious studies today.

The concept of religion

What do we mean by ‘religion’? When did distinct religious traditions appear in human history, and what are the primary expressions of religion in the modern world? What is the relationship between belief and practice as conceptualised by the major world religions? Can we deem religion a human construct?

Religious exclusivism or relativism?

Can mutually exclusive claims made by different religious traditions be equally valid? What are the conflicting approaches regarding claims to truth made by religious traditions? What methods can we use to evaluate the validity of a religious teaching?

The idea of God

In what sense can one speak about God? How do major faith traditions conceptualise ultimate reality, and to what degree can this reality be both abstract and personal at the same time? What are the specific attributes given to God by the Ibrahamic faiths, and to what degree do they agree on these? To what degree can we see the attributes described as godly as logically consistent and coherent when taken as a whole?

Approaches to the philosophy of Religion [2]

9. The Cosmological and Teleological Arguments

Aims & Objectives: This module, the second in the series, will look at two of the most popular and oft-discussed proofs forwarded on the existence of God: the cosmological and teleological arguments. This module will focus on the following areas of interest:

  • The argument from contingency
  • The sufficient reason argument
  • The Kalam argument
  • The design argument
  • The intelligent design argument
  • The fine tuning argument

10. Apologetics: Religious Violence

Evaluating the premises of the religious violence thesis

Religious violence as a concept was pivotal in both the discussions on the relationship between state and society from the very onset of the Reformation in Europe in the 16th century, and what we later called ‘The Religious Wars’ of Europe. With the turn of the 20th century, the specific coupling of religion with violence is such that today we draw unique causal links between religious practice and the prevalence of and propensity towards violence in society.

In this framing of the discussion, we define religion in contradistinction to more enlightened forms of ordering society, those based on human thought unshackled from the moorings of scriptural restraints. By definition, some now hold this secularised ordering of society to be more humanistic, pacifist, and peaceful. The message throughout is clear—and emphasised and regurgitated on every forum of public and private discourse—religion is inherently violent and intolerant. Therefore, the removal of religious ideas from the public sphere is the surest manner of ensuring a peaceful ordering of societies.

Islamic Just War theory

In the wake of de-colonisation there was a resurgence of political actors in the Muslim world informed by a faith inspired worldview. This led to a more specific charge of inherent violence at the door of Islam as a faith. The events of 9/11 and the recent rise of violent groups claiming association with Islam have further emboldened the thesis that, though religions may be predisposed to violence, Islam is inherently so. This includes the theory of Jihad making Islam prone to vitriolic hate and vengeance.

To what degree does such a contention hold true in the light of the scriptural sources of Islam and the development of its ethical and legal tradition? What are the prime examples used to promote the idea that though all religions are violent, Islam is particularly so?

This module looks at questions around religion, violence, and Islam. First, we approach religious violence as articulated in Western academia and popular culture with a goal to better understand its function in contemporary socio-political thinking. Is there a casual link between religion and violence? Who says there is and why? If there is no such causality between the two, why has it become such a pervasive point of view? We reference and discuss some of the most prominent advocates on both sides of the debate.

Second, the module will make a pointed analysis of the concept of Jihad. We investigate the degree to which we can justify taking Islam to be a doctrine that inherently promotes religious violence. We investigate the principle of Jihad by comparison with just war theory and its Islamic parallels. We detail the punishments for apostasy and treason as case studies of this trend of focusing on religiously inspired violence. This module seeks to provide much needed scrutiny on a topic used by Islamophobes as a mainstay of their attacks on Islam. In particular, this module focuses on the following issues:

  • Conceptualising religious violence: introduction to the ‘religious violence’ thesis
  • ‘The mantra of religious violence’
  • A short history of violence: studies on secular violence
  • Islamic just war theory
  • Classic and contemporary conceptions of Islamic just war and international conventions on warfare
  • Case studies on specific cases of religious violence levied at the Islamic faith.

11. Muslim Family Law [1]

Readings in the Muslim Family Law Code

Aims & Objectives: Building on the material covered in the iSyllabus course, this module involves reading and comprehending the Muslim family code as applied in the Muslim world. It also involves a detailed explanation of the day—to-day application of fiqh related to marriage, divorce and general family law.

The module involves selected readings of a text representing the end result of a codification and streamlining of the classical corpus of fiqh works on Muslim family law. In doing so, this module affords students insights into the manner in which Islamic law adapted to the challenges inherent in imposing Western codes of law. It also covers how the Ottoman empire and emerging Muslim majority nations incorporated Islamic law into their new legal structures.

The module will focus on the following areas of interest: 

  • Essentials and conditions of marriage
  • Guardianship
  • Equity and social parity (kafa’ah)
  • The effects of Marriage
  • Maintenance
  • Dissolution of Marriage
  • Separation on grounds of illness, abuse, failure to provide maintenance and absence of the husband.

 

12. Islamic jurisprudence [1] – Understanding the legal import of the Quran & Sunnah

We can not overstate the central place given in Islam to the science of the principles of Islamic law (usul al-fiqh). As a discipline, it attracted the finest minds produced by Islam such as Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, Al-Ghazzali, and Ibn Rushd. It both covers what sources scholars should utilise when providing answers to dilemmas facing Muslims—such as the Qur’an, sunnah, and analogy—and also how to use these sources. We show the primary aim of usul al-fiqh—arriving at the detailed rules of fiqh through an informed understanding of the source of Islamic law—referencing the various schools of Islamic law.

This module will cover the discussions amongst legal theorists on the use of the Quran and Sunnah, and in particular the linguistic and hermeneutical rules that underlie extrapolating legal judgments from the religious source texts. It gives particular focus to understanding the clarity and scope with which language can convey meaning. It also covers the affect this has on deducing legal rulings through Ijtihad in the major schools of Law.

The module covers a general introduction to the topic, main trends, and development of the science. It then moves to detailed examples of Usul related to textual hermeneutics: Ta’wil & Classification I: Clear and Unclear Words; The ‘Amm (General) and the Khass (Specific); The Absolute (Mutlaq) and the Qualified (Muqayyad); The Literal (Haqiqi) and the Metaphorical (Majazi).

13. Islamic jurisprudence [2]: Textual Implications, Imperative Logic, Abrogation, ‘Ijma and ‘Urf

This module covers the discussions amongst legal theorists on the implied meanings derived from the wording of primary legal texts (textual implications). It also covers the deontic nature of legal codes and the use of ‘Imperative Logic’ that informs a large part of religious source texts (commands and prohibitions). This module explains the function of the theory of abrogation as a principle for the derivation of detailed legal rulings of fiqh, the concept of Ijma’ (scholarly consensus), and its basic function and required conditions (consensus – Ijma’). Lastly, this module touches on local custom as a source of juridical rulings.

14. Caliphate and Authority

This module covers the theory and practice of the Caliphate. It takes a multi-disciplinary approach, looking at areas of history, law, politics, theology to shed light on a much commented upon but rarely studied area of Islamic research. Questions addressed include:

  • What led to the decline of the Ummah and how is this decline measured? The ruling on the establishment of the Caliphate. The Sunni-Shia split. The what and why of theological schisms of the caliphate.
  • The role of Caliphal/State-sponsorship in the advocacy of religious sects. Is the Shar’iah applied today in Muslim countries? How has the call for an Islamic state evolved into the present time?
  • What are the major trends in fiqh discussions on the removal of the leader/Caliph (al-Khuruj ala al-Khalifah). Does the nature of the modern nation state, and the social contract that underlies it, warrant a re-assessment of the classical view of al-Khuruj ala al-Khalifah?
  • Citizenship and political representation of Muslims in the West and its relationship to the Islamic idea of authority.

Module breakdown:

1. Giving context to the Islamic idea of Authority (al-Siyasah al-Shari’yyah): The decline of the Ummah & Abolition of the Caliphate.

2. Mapping competing conglomerations of Authority through Islamic History.

3. The Theory: The Caliphate between Theology and Fiqh.

4. The Practice: Ruling by the Law of God in History.

5. Righting wrongs. Revolt, rebellion and insurrection in Islamic Political theory: Historical and Legal vistas.

6. Whither Islamic authority? Discussing future paradigms of Muslim authority in the East and West.

15. Understanding the Path – The Hikam of Ibn Ata Illah al-Iskandari [1]

In this module, we take students through a careful study of one gem of Islamic spiritual literature, The Hikam of Ibn Ata Illah al-Iskandari. It will provide an outline of the path to gaining divine pleasure and the obstacles that appear on the way to this. One of the most accessible commentaries written on the Hikam—that of the Spanish scholar Ibn Abbad al-Rhondi—and other commentaries, aid this study.

 

16. Understanding the Path – The Hikam of Ibn Ata Illah al-Iskandari [2]

In this module, we take students through a careful study of one gem of Islamic spiritual literature, The Hikam of Ibn Ata Illah al-Iskandari. It will provide an outline of the path to gaining divine pleasure and the obstacles that appear on the way to this. One of the most accessible commentaries written on the Hikam—that of the Spanish scholar Ibn Abbad al-Rhondi—and other commentaries, aid this study.

The Modules - Year Two

1 & 2. The Word of God – Tafsir of Selected Suras

Aims & Objectives: Through a detailed study of the commentary and selected sections of the Quranic textthis module provides students with insights into the divine nature of the Quranic message and the themes that make up the Quranic text. We also introduce students to the special form and style of the Quranic text through a study of classical and modern works of tafsir and through the methodology used by the most famous authorities of tafsir.

Building on the modules on Quranic Hermeneutical Axioms, we give special attention to developing students’ ability to make use of maxims to form an understanding of the universal themes of the Quran and the thematic unity of individual chapters. The module also looks at the relationship between translation and Quranic exegesis and the degree to which translation may act as a vehicle to convey certain understandings of a section of the Quran over others.

3. Comparative Fiqh & Hadith Studies (Family Law) [1]

Aims & Objectives: This module will cover comparative fiqh according to the four schools of law, looking at how the Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali and Hanafi schools utilise the prophetic sunnah to arrive at rulings of fiqh.

Through a selection of pivotal hadith related to the fiqh of family law this module allows students to understand the role of hadith literature in the science of fiqh, and how the same hadith sources sometimes lead to different legal rulings.

Topics covered: 

  • Triple divorce
  • Triple divorce in the early period of Islam
  • Triple divorce given at one time
  • Contested divorce
  • Jest in one’s pronouncements
  • That which is not counted as Talaq
  • Prohibitions of Ihdad
  • Rulings on Iddah
  • Leaving the marital home for a reason
  • Establishing lineage
 

4. Comparative Fiqh & Hadith Studies (Commercial Law) [1]

Aims & Objectives: This module will cover comparative fiqh according to the four schools of law, looking at how the Maliki, Shafi’i, Hanbali and Hanafi schools utilise the prophetic sunnah to arrive at rulings of fiqh. Through a selection of pivotal hadith related to the fiqh of Financial Law, this module allows students to understand the role of hadith literature in the science of fiqh, and how the same hadith sources sometimes lead to different legal rulings.

Topics covered: 

  • Impermissible sale items
  • The prohibition on sale including uncertainty
  • The prohibition on two sales in one
  • Stipulations in sales
  • Option to annul a sale
  • Placing an embargo (hajr) against a debtor
  • A loan given to accrue a benefit
  • Variant hadith on usury
  • The sale of a debt for a debt
  • Salam sales
  • Equality in giving gifts to one’s children

5. Islamic Jurisprudence [1]

Analogy (Qiyas) and the Theory and Practice of Equity (Istihsan)

We can not overstate the central place given in Islam to the science of the principles of Islamic law (usul al-fiqh). As a discipline, it attracted the finest minds produced by Islam such as Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, Al-Ghazzali, and Ibn Rushd. It both covers what sources scholars should utilise when providing answers to dilemmas facing Muslims—such as the Qur’an, sunnah, and analogy—and also how to use these sources. We show the primary aim of usul al-fiqh—arriving at the detailed rules of fiqh through an informed understanding of the source of Islamic law—referencing the various schools of Islamic law.

This module covers detailed discussions amongst legal theorists on the central pillar of IjtihadQiyas (analogy) and its associated principles of Istihsan (equity or juristic preference) and Maslahah Mursalah (consideration of public Interest). We outline the interrelatedness of these concepts and explore their relative function and importance.

 

6. Islamic Jurisprudence [2] Auxiliary Concerns in Usul al-Fiqh

This module will cover the discussions amongst legal theorists on the Auxiliary concerns in Usul al-Fiqh, starting with a completion of the remaining three sources of Sunni law: ‘Urf (local custom), Istishab (presumption of continuity) and Sad al-Dharai’i (blocking the means to harm). Thereafter, students investigate the use and result of all the preceding sources with a look at the methodology used to resolve conflicting proofs from the sources, the classification of the resultant rulings from deliberations on the usul, and a discussion on the qualities and conditions of one undertaking independent legal reasoning (Ijtihad).

 

7. Muslim Family Law [1]

Aims & Objectives: Building on the material covered in the iSyllabus course, this module involves reading and comprehending the Muslim family code as applied in the Muslim world. It also involves a detailed explanation of the day—to-day application of fiqh related to marriage, divorce and general family law.

The module involves selected readings of a text representing the end result of a codification and streamlining of the classical corpus of fiqh works on Muslim family law. In doing so, this module affords students insights into the manner in which Islamic law adapted to the challenges inherent in imposing Western codes of law. It also covers how the Ottoman empire and emerging Muslim majority nations incorporated Islamic law into their new legal structures.

Topics covered include:

  • Birth and its consequences
  • Parentage
  • Custody
  • Fosterage
  • Maintenance of relations
  • Capacity and legal representation
  • Bequests

 

8. Muslim Family law & Inheritance

Aims & Objectives: This module will provide an introduction to the Islamic law of inheritance covering the basic categories of those who stand inherit from the deceased’s estate.

Sessions cover the following topics: 

  • Introductory matters related to inheritance
  • Male inheritors
  • Female inheritors
  • A principle regarding calculations
  • The daughter
  • Paternal sister
  • Maternal brother
  • Wife
  • Husband
  • Grandfather
  • General review
  • Practicing case studies

9. Minority Fiqh studies [Law 3.05.S]

‘Muslim minorities face strong challenges on an individual level as they try to lead an Islamic life among an environment that adopts a materialistic philosophy.’ [Abdullah Bin Bayyah]

One development that has taken place in the backdrop of the presence of Muslim populations in lands that have majority non-Muslim citizens is what is referred to as ‘The Fiqh of Minorities’ (al-Fiqh al-Aqaliyyah).

For its proponents, this is a new area of Islamic law dealing those legal cases and issues which have widespread relevance and require urgent attention for Muslims living in a situation of being a minority since such issues are now considered to be unavoidable (Umum al-balwa).

There are two main objectives of Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt: one, to preserve the religious life and Muslim identity of Muslim minorities through the facilitation of a more applicable fiqh; two, to support Muslim minorities’ efforts to convey the message of Islam to their fellow citizens. The two objectives are combined in the following legal maxim which encapsulates the outlook of Fiqh al- Aqalliyyāt: ‘al-taysīr fī al- fatwā wa al- tabshīr fī al- daʿwa’ (facilitation in the issuance of rulings and propagation of Islam through proselytizing).

This module will take an in depth and nuanced look at the area of ‘The Fiqh of Minorities’ (Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt), looking at issues such as: The development of ‘The Fiqh of Minorities’ (Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt); Methodology of Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt; Fiqh al-Aqaliyyat and the issue of minorities rights; The main principles of Fiqh al- Aqalliyyāt; Debates on Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb; General criticisms of Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt; Difference between Fiqh al- Aqalliyyāt and Fiqh al-Nawazil; Is Fiqh al-Aqalliyyat really unique; Salafi scholars and Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt; Shaykh Ramadan al-Buti & Fiqh al-Aqalliyyāt.

The module will conclude with selected Case studies:

Fighting for non-Muslim Militaries against Muslims; Permissibility of Muslims’ permanent residence in non-Muslim countries; The wife in a marriage embracing Islam; Interest based mortgage loans; Inheritance from non-Muslim relatives.

Approaches to the philosophy of Religion [1]

10. The Ontological argument & The question of Evil.

This set of modules, touching on areas of concern in the Philosophy of Religion, seek to investigate the core dilemmas and debates around the areas of Religion and God from the perspective of religious practitioners, philosophers and scientists. It aims to present current thinking in the area of Religion and religious thought in a manner that enables Muslim students to navigate contemporary debates on religious affairs, allowing them to build and utilize knowledge of Muslim creed, theology and ethics to make their faith tradition relevant to modern religious discourse.

In doing so, they should be able to effectively frame such debates from within the Muslim intellectual tradition and suggest new thinking on the big ethical questions that are posed by society and how Islam can provide deep and engaging responses from both scripture and reason.

This module, the third of four on the Philosophy of Religion, will explore the last of the three major historical proofs for the existence of God – The Ontological argument. in specific, it will provide a study of St Anselm’s formulation of this proof, as well as the contemporary reworking of the Ontological proof by Dr Alvin Plantinga.

The module will also look at one of the most persistent arguments against the Christian conception of God: the Question of Evil: ANSELMʼS ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT; PLANTINGAʼS MODAL ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT; The Question of Evil: THEORETICAL & EXISTENTIAL PROBLEMS OF EVIL

 

The Philosophy of Religion

11. Science, Religious experience and the Afterlife

Aims & Objectives: This module addresses the important topic of the challenge of scientism to religious belief in terms of the epistemological questions it raises about the validity of religious belief itself. It will also look at the nature of religious experience and its bearing on providing justifiable religious belief. Lastly, the module will touch upon the issue of afterlife and how this informs the concept of the self.

 

12. Muslim Apologetics – Problematic in modern discourse on Islam

Following on from the previous module which dealt with the theme of Religious violence, this module covers a wide array of contentious issues used by Islamophobes to malign the Islamic faith. This is done through critical readings on the chosen topics in order to firstly verify the nature of the attack and secondly assess some of the responses to the same.

 

13 & 14 Formal logic and Logical fallacies

Aims & Objectives: This module will provide an introduction into Formal logic – the term “formal” referring to the form of the arguments in terms of words, premises and conclusions. In particular it will cover the first half of formal logic relating to comprehension (Taswir) of individual concepts, leading to an understanding of what a definition is and how it is constructed. This will be done by investigating what role significations (dalalat) have in speech and how these are used in conveying meaning. The module will give a overview the main core of Formal logic – affirmation (tasdiq), as well as ‘The Five skills’ (Sana’at al-khamsah).

The modules will go on to cover the various forms of logical fallacies as used in classical and contemporary discourse and will focus on the importance of constructing sound reasoning and identifying flawed reasoning.

15 & 16 Understanding the Path – The Hikam of Ibn Ata

Illah al-Iskandari

In this module, students will be taken through a careful study of one of the gems of Islamic spiritual literature, The Hikam of Ibn Ata Illah al-Iskandari. It will provide an outline of the path to gaining divine pleasure and the obstacles in that appear on the way to this. It will provide an outline of the path to gaining divine pleasure and the obstacles in that appear on the way to this. This study will be aided through one of the most accessible commentaries written on the Hikam, that of the Spanish scholar Ibn Abbad al-Rhondi as well as other commentary such as Iqadh al-Himam.